Analyzing American Progress

1. Primary Source Activity: Analyzing “American Progress” American Progress John Gast’s painting American Progress (1872) is a richly allegorical vision of westward expansion. Publisher George Crofutt commissioned the painting to accompany his western travel guides and promote tourism in the West. This image was originally a painting, but many Americans encountered it in the form of a lithographic print. In its panoramic depiction of the stages of “civilization,” the image tells a story about both the American past and the American future, depicting the ways in which the East was built up as well as the ways in which the West will be built up.      American Progress, 1872 (oil on canvas), Gast, John (b.1842–d.?)/Private Collection/Photo © Christie’s Images/The Bridgeman Art Library Imagine that you and a friend are visiting the Autry Museum of the American West where American Progress is on display. As you stand in front of the painting, your friend begins asking a series of questions about the painting and the American West. Fortunately, you just learned about this in your history class. Fill in the blanks in the conversation. YOUR FRIEND: All of the people walking along the road in the foreground appear to be________(white women, white men, Native American). Were they the only ones who lived out West? YOU: Very astute observation and an excellent question! That is exactly right: Those figures in the foreground are meant to represent_________(Indigenous peoples, Anglo-Americans, Mormon Wives). YOUR FRIEND: Oh, so they are the ones who provided the labor to build the railroads? YOU: Some did, yes, but most of the physical labor was provided by other groups like the__________(Russians, Boosters, Irish), who laid track from east to west, and the___________(Hawains, Big Four, chinese), who did so in the opposite direction. In addition, we know that__________(Indians, Africans Americans, Women) contributed a great deal to building the American West, but only one such person appears in this painting. Why is that? Which of the following benefited most from the federal government’s distribution of land? Native Americans Mining firms Railroads Place each of the following items in the proper category. Description Mining Farming Ranching Benefited from close proximity to railroad transportation Relied upon technological advances Plagued by inadequate rainfall         Global Americans: Wovoka A member of the Northern Paiutes born around 1856 in Smith Valley, Nevada, in what was then Utah territory, Wovoka exemplifies the experience of many peoples in the multicultural West. Also going by the name Jack Wilson, Wovoka encountered and absorbed a range of beliefs, practices, and lifeways that infused his own deeply held convictions about the future of Indians in the North American West. In 1889, Wovoka revived a religious movement that had long been a part of Native American culture. He preached that if his followers performed the Ghost Dance, the depredations they had suffered would turn into triumphs.      The Granger Collection     What does Wovoka’s wardrobe suggest about his relationship with white society in the West? He appears to be wearing clothes of Anglo-European design, suggesting acculturation. He appears to be wearing traditional Paiute garments, suggesting staunch resistance. He appears to be mocking Anglo-European clothing by adorning his garments with Paiute imagery. Select the policy most closely associated with each consequence. Consequence Policy Set aside specific areas to be used as reservations for Indians  (Dawes Severalty Act, Early Forced Assimilation, “Grants Peace Policy”)      Prevented Indians from leasing or selling individual plots for a set period of time  (Dawes Severalty Act, Early Forced Assimilation, “Grants Peace Policy”)      Forbade Indian children from speaking their native language or wearing traditional clothing  (Dawes Severalty Act, Early Forced Assimilation, “Grants Peace Policy”)                          Determine whether each statement is true or false. Statement True False Boarding schools for Indian children diminished their connection to tribal culture. Plains Indians tribes experienced a decrease in their access to and cultural connection with bison due to white encroachment. Indian tribes responded to white encroachment with violence and warfare. Native American leaders who willingly cooperated with whites to lead their people into reservations and forts are referred to as: Assimilationists Acculturationists Accommodationists       Map Activity: Immigration and urbanization The technological innovations that drove the spectacular growth of the world economy also drove people to reconsider how and where they wanted to live. One of the most dramatic shifts at the end of the nineteenth century was the global migration of peoples to other countries and cities to take advantage of new economic and social opportunities. During this period, millions of people left their rural homes and made their way across international borders, oceans, and sometimes just a state to find a new life in the emerging cities. The period between the end of the Civil War and the beginning of World War I saw the largest migration of peoples to date within the borders of the United States as well as from other nations. Analyze the global immigration patterns depicted on the map, then answer the questions about the distribution and impact of immigration that follow. Global Immigration Patterns, 1900      According to this map, which of the following countries received millions of immigrants? Check all that apply. Argentina Hawai’i United States Japan China Canada Which of the following best characterizes the new immigrants from eastern and southern Europe who arrived in the United States during the late nineteenth century? Most arrived across the open U.S.-Mexico border. The majority planned to stay for their entire lives. Many performed the dirtiest, most difficult jobs.           Imagine that you are a tenement dweller and you live in Boston at the turn of the century. Use the dropdown menus to complete the following letter. May 1, 1900 Dear father, Urban living is not exactly what I thought it would be. The increase in population has led to a decline of the single-family home and an increase of apartment living for the working classes. We live in buildings with__________(well ventilated space, poor sanitation, spacious rooms), but the city has recently assumed greater responsibility for providing fresh water and is building__________(schools, theaters, parks) to improve conditions in the rapidly growing urban environment. If only I could afford to move to the suburbs like__________(most immigrants, the middle class, other single women), then I would have more space to move and breathe. Sincerely, Your daughter       Critical Thinking Activity: Industrial violence and the rise of unions The Second Industrial Revolution that drew people from the countryside to rapidly expanding cities also transformed their workplaces and relations with their employers. A large urban industrial labor force emerged in which strangers from different ethnicities, races, and nationalities, speaking different languages, labored shoulder to shoulder. This gathering of workers in urban factories enabled them to find common causes against their employers. Companies were stubbornly resistant, sometimes violently, to workers’ demands. Indicate whether each statement is true or false. Statement True False Women entered forms of employment that required fewer skills. Industrial laborers experienced significant improvements in workplace safety and unemployment benefits. Women and children were paid the same as men who performed similar jobs in industry. Match each statement with the labor union or unions that it describes. Check all that apply. Statement Knights of Labor AFL IWW Sought to unite all workers Organized labor strikes to demand workplace changes Embraced a more radical approach as a means to effect change Choose the correct answer from the dropdown menus to complete the newspaper article. SEPTEMBER 1, 1892 Homestead Under Siege Industrial magnate Andrew Carnegie recently squared off against the________(industrial workers of the world, pinkerton detective agency, Amalgamated Associated of iron and steel workers). Tensions were exacerbated by the refusal of Henry Frick to___________(Improve workplace conditions, increase wages, engage in collective bargaining). Violence ensued when Frick hired armed guards to patrol the mill’s perimeter and keep unionized workers out. Only the intervention of__________(Andrew Carnegie, the president, state troops) brought an end to the strike. Which statement best describes the relationship between workers and employers in the age of industrialization? Employers and owners of industry embraced unions as means of improving relations with workers. Employers and owners of industry maintained amicable relations amid the industrialization of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Employers and owners of industry and workers often came into conflict with one another over workplace conditions and wages.       Horizontal and Vertical Integration The end of the nineteenth century saw an unprecedented growth in technology and business innovation that transformed the way people worked and lived. Steel enabled the construction of high-rise buildings that became the hallmark of dense cities, which drew people into closer proximity with one another. Steamships became larger and faster as global trade expanded and immigrants poured into the United States, greatly increasing the pace of urbanization. Industrialists such as Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and J.P. Morgan capitalized on scientific breakthroughs to boost the consumption of their products and profits using new legal and business practices to consolidate their corporations and expand market share. This business expansion, however, was tempered by economic instability and a major economic downturn in 1893 that hurt not only the rich and powerful but also workers, immigrants, and farmers as the nation struggled to adjust to economic cycles of boom and bust. Based on the reading and your analysis of the infographic, answer the following questions. First, read each statement and determine whether each best applies to Rockefeller, Carnegie, or equally to both.    Statement Rockefeller Carnegie Both Headed Standard Oil, which held a near-monopoly that squashed the competition Used vertical integration to consolidate power in his corporation Acquired other components of his industry’s supply chain, thereby boosting profits Acquired mines, railroads, and other steel mills in the 1880s Who among the following did not subscribe to the concept of “survival of the fittest” being applied to human societies? Check all that apply. Herbert Spencer Andrew Carnegie William Sumner Charles Darwin As the American economy grew during the late nineteenth century, which of the following outcomes did not occur? Even distribution of wealth among classes Availability of new goods and services Creation of more jobs and wealth

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