Compare and contrasts the anatomy and physiology of blood vessels

Compare and contrasts the anatomy and physiology of blood vessels

Utilizing knowledge from your learning and assigned readings, respond to the following questions:

Compare and contrasts the anatomy and physiology of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries. Why are these differences significant in the overall function of the circulatory system? Please be specific.

Provide several examples of factors that cause increases or decreases in peripheral resistance and discuss their effect on overall arterial blood pressure.
Lymphatic and Immune Systems

Utilizing knowledge from your learning and assigned readings, respond to the following questions:

Describe and define the differences between the lymphatic system and immunity.
How do the innate and adaptive immune systems differ in their responses to foreign substances? Provide examples of each system.

The vascular system is responsible for the distribution of oxygen and metabolites, removal of waste materials, and thermoregulation.

Compare and contrasts the anatomy and physiology of blood vessels

Perfused by the pump function of the heart, blood vessels are the elastic conduits of the circulation and include three fundamental components: arteries, veins, and the microcirculation (arterioles, capillaries, and venules). The functional assessment of the vascular system refers to the hemodynamic state, which includes a series of clinically relevant parameters that stem from the intrinsic components of these blood vessels. These components include endothelial cells, elastic fibers, collagen fibers, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that vary in contribution across different vascular beds and govern the modulation of pressure, flow, and resistance.[1]

The perfusion of tissues through vessels is dependent on the adequate pumping function of the heart. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, with veins transporting blood back to it. The microcirculation becomes progressively thinner in terms of wall thickness at the level of the capillaries to promote the necessary exchange of gases and metabolites, and removal of waste. Except for the capillaries (endothelial cells only), the wall of these vessel conduits consists of three layers, an inner intima, a middle media, and an outer adventitia. Of the intrinsic vessel wall components, endothelial cells form a thin non-fenestrated layer connected by tight junctions in most arteries, veins, and capillaries of the circulatory system to regulate homeostasis. Fenestrated endothelial cells are present in the circulatory beds of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and endocrine/exocrine glands, where increased transport and filtration exists.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

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Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • The is a great resource

 

 

Vascular SMCs (vSMCs) are a second component that is absent in capillaries but exists elsewhere to provide tension via its contractile properties.[2] However, the elastic tension of the vascular wall is mostly mediated by collagen and elastic fiber components, the former, composed of type I and III collagen, is less extensible, while the latter, composed of elastin and myofibrils, accommodates most of vessel distension ability with pressure.[3][4] While neither fiber component exists in the capillaries, a more substantial elastic fiber component is present in the large elastic arteries (e.g., the aorta) compared to the large veins (e.g., vena cava), which relates to the ability for arteries to withstand transmural (full-thickness) pressure differences better. At the level of the muscular arteries, and the arteriolar component of the microcirculation, more SMC components are seen to facilitate necessary contraction for blood flow regulation.

 

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