DQ: Describe the effect of health care reform on the U.S. health care system and its respective stakeholders

DQ Describe the effect of health care reform on the U.S. health care system and its respective stakeholders

Research the delivery, finance, management, and sustainability methods of the U.S. health care system. Evaluate the effectiveness of one or more of these areas on quality patient care and health outcomes. Propose a potential health care reform solution to improve effectiveness in the area you evaluated and predict the expected effect. Describe the effect of health care reform on the U.S. health care system and its respective stakeholders. Support your post with a peer-reviewed journal article.
Sharon Dube
Posted Date
Jan 20, 2022, 8:19 PM
Replies to Sharon Dube
The US Health system has many disadvantages which include disparities in health care delivery and therefore faces problems such as preventable medical errors, preventable mortality rates and lack of transparency in treatment. The cost of medical care and health insurance in the US is very high which has left a number of families not on health insurance as they prioritize other things like having a home or buying food to sustain their everyday lives and therefore cannot seek medical care due to the high cost. This has led to disparities in the healthcare system meaning only the rich can afford quality healthcare. Lack of access to healthcare presents delays in care as people only seek treatment when they are very ill resulting in increased complications which may be extremely hard to reverse or correct and may result in permanent damage, higher treatment costs and increased hospitalizations. (Wales Forest School of medicine 2020).
Focus on preventive measures assists in reducing the need to seek medical attention and become more resilient to environmental factors. Sustainable practices enhance the provision of healthcare services in several ways which include efforts to address public health threats due to climate change. Sustainability techniques used by the healthcare system include zero waste policies, water conservation and Telehealth services that reduce carbon based fuel consumption. To promote healthcare reform I would suggest preventing lung cancer by proving smoke cessation or rehabilitation centers for smokers, this would reduce development of COPD and lung cancer, smoke cessation aids like nicotine patches or gums should be provided free of charge and be easily accessible for those who need them. Healthcare facilities are now taking more serious care in the use of disinfectants as some disinfectants have been found to be harmful and cause cancer to the patients and healthcare workers . The CDC has issued guidelines to ensure people and the environment are protected. The healthcare reform would promote affordable healthcare and expand availability of safe high quality healthcare options, encourage innovation and competition.( Warner et al 2020.)
Wale forest school of medicine . 2020. What is sustainability in healthcare. www.onlinehealth.wfu.edu/blog/sustainability-in-healthcare
Warner J.MD; Benjamin J. MD. The American heart association. 2020. Advancing healthcare reform retrieved from www.ahajournals.org/

Steven Hebert
replied toSharon Dube
Jan 22, 2022, 9:21 AM
• Replies to Sharon Dube
Hi Sharon,
It is truly unfortunate that health insurance in the United States is so expensive that families have to prioritize their expenses before enrolling for healthcare coverage. Medical insurance should be something that families have without having to worry about going broke. I agree with you that this then leads to situations where the less fortunate finally receive medical care when it is near the end and some problems cannot be reversed. I like your suggestion about smoking cessation. If people have the ability to stop smoking and use other forms of nicotine then the result will be fewer cases of COPD and lung cancer. Great post!
• Benjamin Wright
replied toSharon Dube
Jan 22, 2022, 8:06 PM
• Replies to Sharon Dube
Great post! Healthcare costs in the United States are higher than in most other countries around the world. In 2018 the healthcare

DQ Describe the effect of health care reform on the U.S. health care system and its respective stakeholders

cost in the United States was 3.6 trillion dollars which account for 16.9 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) for the United States (Schreck, 2020). I agree with you that as a nation we need to focus primarily on preventative measures and getting people affordable insurance. By focusing on preventative measures we can prevent any long term complications which would result in a decreased cost in health care. Health care professionals and community stakeholders must work together to develop healthcare reform policies to address this issue going forward.


Hi Sharon,
You made an excellent point when referring to the lack of health care available due to the cost and having no insurance. I would like to contribute an addition to this argument by mentioning how disappointing the VA in America is. I have worked one on one with many patients who, because of difficulties with the VA, have suffered hardships in their health care. One patient in particular ended up hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis and an amputation to his foot due to the difficulties of getting his insulin and wound care through the veterans association. Through the years, both the access to care for veterans as well as the quality of that care has declined tremendously. Since the rise in COVID-19 cases, the VA is now functioning on 25% occupancy and care has further declined. If we want to make a change in care in America, the VA would be a great start.
Farmer, C. M., Hosek, S. D., & Adamson, D. M. (2016). Balancing Demand and Supply for Veterans’ Health Care: A Summary of Three RAND Assessments Conducted Under the Veterans Choice Act. Rand health quarterly, 6(1), 12.

Margaret Kamara
Posted Date
Jan 20, 2022, 12:02 AM
Replies to Sharon Dube
The U.S. healthcare system is historically the most expensive in the world, with the highest expenditure on health care. In 2012, the U.S. health expenditures per capita were $8.953, accounting for 17.9% of the GDP (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Feeg, 2020). However, these expenditures do not compare to the health system performance when compared to other similar nations. This issue drove innovative healthcare service delivery models whose role is to improve patient care. These models include accountable care organizations (ACO), patient-centered medical homes (PCMH), and bundled payment. These models are types of value-based purchasing program that provides incentives for high-quality care.
According to the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) (2020), the role of these innovative models is to deliver high-quality care and reduce expenditure. ACO model, for example, is a group of doctors, hospitals, and other healthcare providers who coordinate to provide care to Medicare patients and reduce wastage (Nickitas, Middaugh, & Feeg, 2020). The ACO will share in the savings for the Medicare Program. The use of payment incentives and penalties is a great way of influencing medical practice. However, the impact on cost is uneven, given the many requirements of setting up these innovative models.

These models depend heavily on shared information systems to improve care coordination and prevent service duplication. These systems are expensive and raise complex issues relating to data compatibility and data sharing (Blackstone & Fuhr, 2016). The reforms are feasible in terms of the impact on quality, but so much is required to reduce the initial cost of set-up. Finding a way to implement these models without an enormous start-up cost is essential.

Value-based purchasing (VBP) helps improve patient experience of care, population health, and reduce the per capita cost of health care. According to Blackstone and Fuhr (2016), building the infrastructure required for VBP models will facilitate measurement and improvement. It will also protect the consumers by ensuring that their health information is protected from privacy and security issues. The meaningful use of the EHRs is essential in meeting the core objectives of these models – Institute of Healthcare Improvement (2020) Triple Aims.

Blackstone, E. A., & Fuhr, J. P. (2016). The economics of Medicare accountable care organizations. American Health & Drug Benefits, 9(1), 11-19. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822974/
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2020). Hospital value-based purchasing. https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Quality-Initiatives-Patient-Assessment-Instruments/Value-Based-Programs/HVBP/Hospital-Value-Based-Purchasing
Institute for Healthcare Improvement. (2020). Initiatives. http://www.ihi.org/Engage/Initiatives/TripleAim/Pages/default.aspx
Nickitas, D. M., Middaugh, D. J., & Feeg, V. D. (2020). Policy and politics for nurses and other health professionals: Advocacy and action (3rd ed.). Burlington. MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Anne Cattell
replied toMargaret Kamara
Jan 20, 2022, 1:07 PM
• Replies to Margaret Kamara
Your post was interesting and informative. One of the models I found during further research into this topic was the Health Literate Care Model. In order to improve health outcomes in the United States, we need patients to be more engaged in prevention, decision-making, and self-management The Health Literate Care Model is an important tool that can help. It weaves health literacy principles from the Universal Precautions Toolkit into the widely adopted Chronic Care Model and calls for health care providers to:
 Approach all patients as if they are at risk of not understanding health information
 Employ a range of strategies for clear communication
 Confirm that patients understand what providers are saying
When a health care organization adopts the Health Literate Care Model, health literacy becomes an organizational value infused into all aspects of planning and operations(Health.gov., n.d.).
This model is so important in the education of our patients, many times we assume that everyone can read and write, this is not always the case. The older generation sometimes had to drop out of school to go to work to support their families. The law No Child Left Behind 2002-2015 was not effective in educating children in the public sector. We must consider the level of literacy prior to educating our patients.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

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Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

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Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
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