DQ: Propose one example of a nursing intervention related to the disaster

DQ: Propose one example of a nursing intervention related to the disaster

Topic 5 DQ 2
Jan 24-28, 2022
Watch the “Diary of Medical Mission Trip” videos dealing with the catastrophic earthquake in Haiti in 2010. Reflect on this natural disaster by answering the following questions:
1. Propose one example of a nursing intervention related to the disaster from each of the following levels: primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention. Provide innovative examples that have not been discussed by previous students.
2. Under which phase of the disaster do the three proposed interventions fall? Explain why you chose that phase.
3. With what people or agencies would you work in facilitating the proposed interventions and why?
Sharon Dube
Posted Date
Jan 28, 2022, 11:03 PM
The Earthquake in Haiti was indeed a very sad event and was the most devastating event in the countries history, and between 100,000 to 300,000 people were killed. The effects were worsened by poor planning, lack of resources and being generally unprepared in the event disaster strikes. To lessen the impact of the disaster primary, secondary and tertiary measures have to be put in place. Primary prevention aims to prevent disease or injury before it occurs or when disease is anticipated. This is done by preventing exposures to hazards that cause disease or injury and increasing resistance to disease should exposure occur. (CDC 2021)Examples include immunization against infectious disease, education about being healthy and safe habits, hand washing, use of hand sanitizers and gloves.. Reflecting on the Haiti disaster, primary prevention would fall under the pre-impact phase and interventions would include carrying out drills, review policy and procedure to be followed in a disaster, planning and preparing for the disaster that is ensuring hospitals are well equipped, having contingency measures in place such s backup generators. The national organization or governments may be involved to ensure housing is earthquake proof by using lighter material such as wood in place of heavy bricks. Secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of disease or injury that has already occurred. ( CDC 2021).This is done by detecting and treating disease or injury as soon as possible to halt or slow its progression, implementing programs return people to their original health and function to prevent long term problems. This would fall under the impact phase which occurs during the event. Interventions include assessing the predicted damage, determining the appropriate number of healthcare workers and emergency responders needed, recalling off duty healthcare staff, treatment of patients with antibiotics to prevent infection, administering intravenous fluids, performing surgical amputations and pitching tents to provide shelter, leasing with donor funded organizations for financial aid and donation of equipment, leasing with neighboring countries for assistance. Tertiary prevention aims to soften the impact of an ongoing illness or injury that has lasting effects. (CDC).This would fall under the post impact phase where imminent danger has ceased. Interventions physical therapy and rehabilitation, involving church communities and counsellors for counseling and psychological support. Debriefing and re-evaluation of disaster and emergency preparedness involving the local government for budget review.
References
Center for disease prevention and control .2021. Health and safety concerns for all disasters. retrieved from www.cdc.gov/disasters/alldisasters.html
World Vision.2021. Haiti earthquake facts. retrieved from www.worldvision.org/disaster-relief-news-stories/2010-haiti

Benjamin Wright
Posted Date
Jan 28, 2022, 10:44 PM
Replies to Sharon Dube
There are three levels of nursing intervention including primary, secondary, and tertiary that can be implemented to help lessen the negative impacts from major disasters such as the Haiti earthquake in 2010. Primary prevention is taking action before it negatively affects an individual’s health. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016) In this situation, an example of primary prevention would be creating a disaster preparedness plan to have in place before a disaster happens. This will help provide quicker and more efficient care to those who need it when a disaster happens. Some of the topics that should be covered when creating a disaster preparedness plan include determining who will be in charge of the response, identifying roles and responsibilities, determining an effective communication system in case of loss of communications, having extra medical equipment, supplies, and medications on hand, etc.(HARRIS, 2021) Secondary prevention is detecting the problem so that treatment can be given to lessen the effects on the individual’s health. An example of secondary prevention in this situation would include having an adequate amount of resources including medical equipment, supplies, medications, etc to be able to provide immediate treatment to those in need after the earthquake without delay. This also ensures that resources are not having to be stretched causing some health issues or injuries to go untreated due to lack of supplies. Tertiary prevention is managing the health issue after it has occurred. An example of tertiary prevention would be triaging individuals after the earthquake to provide care and save as many individuals as possible. This would

DQ Propose one example of a nursing intervention related to the disaster

also include providing individuals with basic needs including food, water, shelter, and also emotional needs. The primary and secondary nursing interventions would be included in the pre-impact stage of the disaster. The pre-impact stage is the preparation stage including making a plan to make sure there are enough resources before the disaster occurs. The tertiary intervention would be included in the post-impact stage of the disaster. The post-impact stage is focused on providing emergency and medical care to those in need. “This disaster phase can last months or years and, depending on the scope and intensity of the disaster, may even have lifelong effects.” (Falkner, 2018) There are some individuals and agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), faith-based disaster response organizations, and national and community governmental agencies to work and collaborate to provide relief to those after the disaster. FEMA, “is a division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and is the coordinating agency for allocation of assistance in the event of disasters in the United States.” (Falkner, 2018)Faith-based organizations would include church missions that respond to areas affected by disaster to assist with recovery. Working with these groups helps to expand resources to provide preparation, assistance and treatment, and recovery to disaster areas around the world.

References:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Picture_of_america_prevention [PDF]. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved January 26, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/pictureofamerica/pdfs/picture_of_america_prevention.pdf

Falkner, A. (2018). Disaster management. Community & public health: The future of health care. Retrieved January 24, 2022, from
https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/5

HARRIS, Y. (2021). Emergency preparedness and response – leadership and influencing change in nursing. leadershipandinfluencingchangeinnursing.pressbooks.com. Retrieved January 26, 2022, from
https://leadershipandinfluencingchangeinnursing.pressbooks.com/chapter/chapter-13-emergency-preparedness-and-response/

Judy Han
replied toBenjamin Wright
Jan 28, 2022, 10:49 PM
• Replies to Benjamin Wright
Benjamin, great post. One point to consider when supplying a country with aid from international sources includes making sure that medical supplies such as antibiotics and drugs can be properly identified. Medication cannot be safely administered if local relief workers or healthcare providers cannot read the labels, for example if they are in a language that is not spoken in that country (Benjamin et al., 2011). Time is of the essence when providing relief during natural disasters but supplies that cannot be safely administered are almost as useless as sending no supplies at all. Unusable supplies also take up room that can be better allocated for other items. In addition, it is important to make sure that medications and supplies sent either will not perish, or that refrigeration is available somehow to keep them fresh (Benjamin et al., 2011).
Reference

Benjamin, E., Bassily-Marcus, A. M., Babu, E., Silver, L., & Marin, M. (2011). Principles and practice of disaster relief: Lessons from Haiti. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 78, 306-318. DOI:10.1002/msj.20251
• Joselli Seymour
replied toBenjamin Wright
Jan 29, 2022, 5:13 PM
• Replies to Benjamin Wright
Hello, Wright. Primary prevention is the act of planning before a disaster occurs. Some primary prevention examples include familiarizing oneself with local shelters and hospitals having emergency supplies available such as extra water, flashlights, and battery-powered radio available. Secondary Prevention nursing Interventions: secondary prevention would occur during the acute stage of the disaster. These interventions of course, would differ depending on the type and scope of the disaster. Generally, the goal of secondary prevention intervention is to decrease the deleterious effects of the disaster on individuals and the community. In the type of disaster where there’s the possibility of many casualties, several types of activities will take place simultaneously. Primary prevention entails countering disasters before they occur. For the Haitian earthquake, primary prevention would entail establishing a disaster plan for educating people on the best ways to ensure preparation for disasters (Harris, 2021). Some of these include identifying a safe spot to meet family and making sure that they have adequate food and water storage.
Reference
Harris, Y. (2021). Emergency preparedness and response – leadership and influencing change in nursing. leadership andinfluencing changeinnursing.press books.com.

Judy Han
Posted Date
Jan 28, 2022, 10:35 PM
Replies to Sharon Dube
The 2010 earthquake in Haiti was noted to have some deficiencies in preparation and response, partially due to lack of resources. A primary prevention intervention that can mitigate the results of a disaster, especially in Haiti which is prone to catastrophic earthquakes and hurricanes, would include disaster training of local people. Most people in disasters are rescued by their neighbors, and injuries are less severe or casualties prevented when relief and rescue come as soon as possible (Benjamin et al., 2011). Nurses can provide this education in collaboration with Certified Emergency Response Teams, and this would be provided in the pre-impact phase in preparation for the next inevitable disaster. It is important that this training include as many people, not only emergency response volunteers, as possible; the long delay in international relief efforts meant that many people had only each other for relief and rescue (Benjamin et al., 2011).
A secondary intervention can include triage. Under-triage and over-triage both impede results and outcomes, and can result in people with major injuries not receiving prompt care (Benjamin et al., 2011). This is done during the impact phase, with collaboration from organizations such as the American Red Cross or CERT.

Tertiary prevention includes infection control, especially prophylactic measures to prevent or mitigate epidemics. A cholera epidemic 9 months after the 2010 Haiti earthquake killed more than 4500 people, and was “believed to have been inadvertently imported from abroad” (Benjamin et al., 2011), in other words from international relief efforts. Nurses can educate people on hygiene and sanitation, such as sterilizing drinking water and washing hands properly. This is done during the post-impact phase when the focus is no longer on search and rescue and sanitation systems are at risk for breakdown.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

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Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
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