NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

 

When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

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For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.
  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor.
  • Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?
  • Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.
  • If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example.
    • Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
    • Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.

The Assignment

Assignment (3–4 pages, not including title and reference pages):

Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests:
Include the following:

  • A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
    • What is its purpose?
    • How is it conducted?
    • What information does it gather?
  • Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting.
NURS 6512 Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:
Include the following:

  • An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.
  • Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.
  • Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
  • Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.
  • Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.

By Day 6 of Week 3

Submit your Assignment.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
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Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 3 Assignment 1 Option 1 Rubric

To access your rubric:

Week 3 Assignment 1 Option 2 Rubric

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 3 Assignment 1 draft and review the originality report.

Submit Your Assignment by Day 6 of Week 3

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 3 Assignment 1

 Week 3: Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children

Many experts predict that genetic testing for disease susceptibility is well on its way to becoming a routine part of clinical care. Yet many of the genetic tests currently being developed are, in the words of the World Health Organization (WHO), of “questionable prognostic value.”

—Leslie Pray, PhD

Obesity remains one of the most common chronic diseases in the United States. As a leading cause of United States mortality, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization and healthcare costs, the high prevalence of obesity continues to strain the United States healthcare system (Obesity Society, 2016).  More than one-third (39.8%) of U.S. adults have obesity (CDC, 2018). The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight (CDC, 2018).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the rate of childhood obesity has tripled in the past 30 years, with an estimated 13.7 million children and adolescents considered obese (CDC, 2018). When seeking insights about a patient’s overall health and nutritional state, body measurements can provide a valuable perspective. This is particularly important with pediatric patients. Measurements such as height and weight can provide clues to potential health problems and help predict how children will respond to illness. Nurses need to be proficient at using assessment tools, such as the Body Mass Index (BMI) and growth charts, in order to assess nutrition-related health risks and pediatric development while being sensitive to other factors that may affect these measures. Body Mass Index is also used as a predictor for measurement of adult weight and health.

Assessments are constantly being conducted on patients, but they may not provide useful information. In order to ensure that health assessments provide relevant data, nurses should familiarize themselves with test-specific factors that may affect the validity, reliability, and value of these tools.

This week, you will explore various assessment tools and diagnostic tests that are used to gather information about patients’ conditions. You will examine the validity and reliability of these tests and tools. You will also examine assessment techniques, health risks and concerns, and recommendations for care related to patient growth, weight, and nutrition.

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate validity and reliability of assessment tools and diagnostic tests
  • Analyze diversity considerations in health assessments
  • Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to examination techniques, functional assessments, and cultural and diversity awareness in health assessment
  • Apply assessment skills to collect patient health histories

Learning Resources

 

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

  • Chapter 3, “Examination Techniques and Equipment”

This chapter explains the physical examination techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. This chapter also explores special issues and equipment relevant to the physical exam process.

 

  • Chapter 8, “Growth and Nutrition”

In this chapter, the authors explain examinations for growth, gestational age, and pubertal development. The authors also differentiate growth among the organ systems.

 

  • Chapter 5, “Recording Information”  (Previously read in Week 1)

This chapter provides rationale and methods for maintaining clear and accurate records. The text also explores the legal aspects of patient records.

 

 

This study explores the escalating healthcare cost due the unnecessary use of diagnostic testing. Consider the impact of health insurance coverage in each state and how nursing professionals must be cognizant when ordering diagnostics for different individuals.

 

 

This study explores nutrition literacy. The authors examine the level of attention paid to health literacy among nutrition professionals and the skills and knowledge needed to understand nutrition education.

 

 

 

Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

  • Chapter 2, “The Comprehensive History and Physical Exam” (Previously read in Week 1)
  • Chapter 5, “Pediatric Preventative Care Visits” (pp. 91 101)

Shadow Health Support and Orientation Resources

Use the following resources to guide you through your Shadow Health orientation as well as other support resources:

 

Optional Resource

LeBlond, R. F., Brown, D. D., & DeGowin, R. L. (2014). DeGowin’s diagnostic examination (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical.

 

  • Chapter 3, “The Physical Screening Examination”
  • Chapter 17, “Principles of Diagnostic Testing”
  • Chapter 18, “Common Laboratory Tests”

 

Taking a Health History
How do nurses gather information and assess a patient’s health? Consider the importance of conducting an in-depth health assessment interview and the strategies you might use as you watch. (16m)

Assessment Tool, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurements, and Nutrition in Adults and Children – Week 3 (11m)

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Content

Name: NURS_6512_Week_3_Assignment_1_Rubric_Option_1

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
In 3–4 pages, address the following:

A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
o What is its purpose?
o How is it conducted?
o What information does it gather?

Points Range: 30 (30%) – 35 (35%)

The response clearly, accurately, and with specific detail describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.

Points Range: 24 (24%) – 29 (29%)

The response accurately describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.

Points Range: 18 (18%) – 23 (23%)

The response vaguely and/or with some inaccuracy describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)

The response is inaccurate or missing descriptions of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.

Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

The response accurately and thoroughly evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with clear sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is clear, accurate, and appropriate for the evaluation.

Points Range: 39 (39%) – 44 (44%)

The response accurately evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is somewhat clear, accurate,and appropriate for the evaluation.

Points Range: 33 (33%) – 38 (38%)

The response vaguely and/or with some inaccuracy evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with some sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is vague or inaccurate for the evaluation.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 32 (32%)

“The response is inaccurate and/or missing evaluations of the test or tool’s validity and reliability, with explanations of any issues missing or lacking sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is missing, inaccurate, or lacking for the evaluation.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

Total Points: 100  

Name: NURS_6512_Week_3_Assignment_1_Rubric_Option_1

Rubric Detail

Select Grid View or List View to change the rubric’s layout.

Content

Name: NURS_6512_Week_3_Assignment_1_Rubric_Option_2

  Excellent Good Fair Poor
In 3–4 pages, address the following:

An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.

Points Range: 20 (20%) – 25 (25%)

The response clearly, accurately, and in detail explains the relevant health issues and risks for the assigned child.

Points Range: 19 (19%) – 24 (24%)

The response accurately explains the relevant health issues and risks for the assigned child.

Points Range: 18 (18%) – 23 (23%)

The response vaguely and with some inaccuracy explains the relevant health issues and risks for the assigned child.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)

The response is inaccurate and/or missing explanations of the relevant health issues and risks for the assigned child.

Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health. Points Range: 20 (20%) – 25 (25%)

The response clearly and accurately describes detailed additional information needed to further assess the child’s weight-related health.

Points Range: 19 (19%) – 24 (24%)

The response accurately describes additional information needed to further assess the child’s weight-related health.

Points Range: 18 (18%) – 23 (23%)

The response vaguely and with some inaccuracy describes additional information needed to further assess the child’s weight-related health.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)

The response is inaccurate and/or missing a description of additional information needed to further assess the child’s weight-related health.

Identify and describe any risks, and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion. Points Range: 18 (18%) – 20 (20%)

The response clearly and accurately identifies and describes in detail any risks to the child’s health. The response clearly and accurately identifies and describes in detail further information needed to gain a full understanding of the child’s health, with a detailed explanation of how to gather that information in a way that is sensitive to the child.

Points Range: 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

The response accurately identifies and describes any risks to the child’s health. The response accurately identifies and describes further information needed to gain a full understanding of the child’s health, with a clear explanation of how to gather that information in a way that is sensitive to the child.

Points Range: 14 (14%) – 14 (14%)

The response vaguely and with some inaccuracy identifies and describes any risks to the child’s health. The response vaguely identifies and describes further information needed to gain a full understanding of the child’s health, with a vague explanation of how to gather that information in a way that is sensitive to the child.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 13 (13%)

The response identifies inaccurately and/or is missing descriptions of any risks to the child’s health. The response identifies inaccurately and/or is missing descriptions of further information needed to gain a full understanding of the child’s health, with an inadequate or missing explanation of how to gather that information in a way that is sensitive to the child.

Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information. Points Range: 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)

The response clearly and accurately lists three or more specific questions that would gather more information about the child. Specific questions are carefully worded to clearly demonstrate sensitivity to the parent(s) or caregiver(s) of the child.

Points Range: 9 (9%) – 9 (9%)

The response lists three specific questions that would gather more information about the child. Specific questions are worded to demonstrate sensitivity to the parent(s) or caregiver(s) of the child.

Points Range: 8 (8%) – 8 (8%)

The response lists three questions with wording that is vague and lacking specificity for gathering more information about the child. Some wording of the questions lacks sensitivity to the parent(s) or caregiver(s) of the child.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 7 (7%)

The response lists two or fewer confusing or inadequate questions, or is missing questions, for gathering more information about the child. Wording of questions provided lacks sensitivity to the parent(s) or caregiver(s) of the child.

Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

The response clearly describes two or more detailed strategies to encourage the parent(s) or caregiver(s) to be proactive about the child’s health and weight.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

The response describes at least two strategies to encourage the parent(s) or caregiver(s) to be proactive about the child’s health and weight.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

The response vaguely describes two strategies to encourage the parent(s) or caregiver(s) to be proactive about the child’s health and weight.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

The response inadequately describes one strategy or is missing strategies to encourage the parent(s) or caregiver(s) to be proactive about the child’s health and weight.

Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.

Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.

Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list. Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)

Uses correct APA format with no errors.

Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)

Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.

Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)

Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)

Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.

Total Points: 100  

Name: NURS_6512_Week_3_Assignment_1_Rubric_Option_2

 

 

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